A Model Linking Clinical Workforce Skill Mix Planning to Health and Health Care Dynamics. April 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, it is important to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the ‘stock and flow’ approach of much workforce planning activity. Taking a dynamic systems approach, this model addresses the interactions, delays and feedbacks that influence the balance between the major components of health and health care. [adapted from abstract]
Access to Non-pecuniary Benefits: Does Gender Matter? Evidence from Six Low- and Middle-income Countries. 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Gender issues remain a neglected area in most approaches to health workforce policy, planning and research. There is an accumulating body of evidence on gender differences in health workers’ employment patterns and pay, but inequalities in access to non-pecuniary benefits between men and women have received little attention. This study investigates empirically whether gender differences can be observed in health workers’ access to non-pecuniary benefits across six low- and middle-income countries. [from abstract]
Achieving the Right Balance: The Role of Policy-Making Processes in Managing Human Resources for Health Problems. Department of Organization of Health Services Delivery, World Health Organization, 2000. (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Both the causes and the solutions to human resources problems in the health sector are complex. The problems are rooted in political, economic, cultural and health systems. The solutions depend on numerous inputs—funds, education and training programs, data and working conditions—over which HRH policy makers often lack direct control. The hypothesis of this study is that countries that successfully implement HRH policies and, as a result, ameliorate HRH problems are those that 1) adjust the specific HRH strategies to meet the demands of their country’s health sector reforms, the political/macroeconomic context and government administrative policies and 2) use policy-making processes that are consultative, “owned by the country,” based on sound data and supported by adequate human and financial resources.
Addressing the Health Workforce Crisis: A Toolkit for Health Professional Advocates Health Workforce Advocacy Initiative of the Global Health Workforce Alliance. (Action Field: Leadership; Partnership; Tool/Guideline)
This toolkit was created by the Health Workforce Advocacy Initiative, the civil society-led network of the Global Health Workforce Alliance. The purpose of this toolkit is to assist health professionals, health professional associations, and civil society organizations to develop advocacy strategies to address human resource and health financing issues in
An Introduction to Monitoring and Evaluation of HRH. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
This course provides a basic introduction to monitoring and evaluation concepts and how they apply to the field of human resources for health (HRH) to inform evidence-based planning and decision-making. [Note: this course requires a free login]
An Overview of Human Resources for Health (HRH) Projection Models. The Capacity Project, 2008. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Resource)
An Overview of Human Resources for Health (HRH) Projection Models provides a rapid review of different health workforce projection approaches with a list of references for more information.
Analysis of Labour Turnover Tool. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
This tool presents a simple process for analyzing labor turnover.
Art of Moving from Policy to Action: Lessons Learned from the USAID Health Policy Initiative (2005-2010). September 2010 (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Assessing Financing, Education, Management and Policy Context for Strategic Planning of Human Resources for Health. WHO 2007 (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Attracting and Retaining Nurse Tutors in Malawi. The Capacity Project, 2006 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
This resource paper focuses on a collaboration scheme to retain nurse tutors and includes the scheme’s successful elements, suggestions for addressing challenges and effective retention incentives. A one page summary is also available
Basic Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement. World Federation for Medical Education, 2003. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) works to raise the global standards of medical education. Their trilogy of Global Standards (prepared with partner organizations, including the WHO) covers three phases of medical education: basic medical education, postgraduate medical education and continuing professional development.
Bridges to Health Worker Employment Overview. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
Twelve suggestions that health professional schools, ministries of health, employer councils, and others can implement to shorten the time between graduation and employment.
Building Stronger Human Resources for Health through Licensure, Certification and Accreditation. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Resource)
Credentialing of health care providers, facilities and educational institutions is an integral component in building and sustaining robust human resources for health (HRH) systems. The credentialing mechanisms—licensure/registration, certification and accreditation—are among the most frequently used quality assurance tools in health care and serve as valuable instruments in the broader function of health care regulation. This technical brief examines the characteristics and potential advantages of these mechanisms and common challenges faced in implementing them in low resource settings.
Building the Bridge from Human Resources Data to Effective Decisions: Ten Pillars of Successful Data-Driven Decision-Making. The Capacity Project, 2008. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Building the Bridge from Human Resources Data to Effective Decisions: Ten Pillars of Successful Data-Driven Decision-Making resents ten fundamental and practical pillars to aid HR managers, practitioners and policy analysts in building a bridge from HR data and reports to effective HR policy and management decisions.
Conférence Internationale des Doyens et des Facultés de Médecine d’Expression Française. (Action Field: Education; Resource)
Réseau Institutionnel de l’Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie, la Conférence Internationale des Doyens et des Facultés de Médecine d’Expression Française (CIDMEF), fondée en 1981, comprend aujourd’hui 40 pays. La CIDMEF conduit, depuis 1981, une coopération médicale universitaire faite d’actions concrètes, de terrain, dans un esprit de service, de multilatéralité et de liberté.
Contemporary Specificities of Labour in the Health Care Sector: Introductory Notes for Discussion. Human Resources for Health, 2005. (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This resource combines the literature on public health, economics of health and economics of technological innovation to discuss the peculiarities of labor in the health care sector.
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of Medical Doctors: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement. World Federation for Medical Education, 2003. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) works to raise the global standards of medical education. Their trilogy of Global Standards (prepared with partner organizations, including the WHO) covers three phases of medical education: basic medical education, postgraduate medical education and continuing professional development.
Continuing Professional Development for Health Workers in Developing Countries. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
In order for health workers to provide quality care and meet their communities’ changing health care needs, they must become lifelong learners dedicated to updating their professional knowledge, skills, values, and practice. Continuing professional development encompasses all of the activities that health workers undertake—both formal and informal—to maintain, update, develop, and enhance their professional skills, knowledge, and attitudes.
Costing the Scaling –Up of Human Resources For Health: Lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau. HRH Journal. Volume 8. Issue 14. 2010 (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This paper reports on two separate experiences of human resources development plans costing in Mozambique and Guinea Bissau to provide insight into the practice of costing exercises in information-poor settings and contribute to the existing debate on HRH costing methodologies.
Creating a Work Climate that Motivates Staff and Improves Performance. The Manager, Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2002. (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
This issue of the The Manager outlines the connections between work climate, employee motivation and performance. It describes how managers can assess the climate in their work group and shows how they can use the results to make changes in leadership and management practices that will motivate their group to do the best work possible and improve results.
Data Quality Considerations in Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) Strengthening. The Capacity Project, 2008. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Data Quality Considerations in Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) Strengthening discusses concepts of data quality and provides examples of the importance of data management specific to the field of human resources for health.
Designing Evidence-Based Incentives to Attract and Retain Health Workers. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Finance; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Based on the USAID-funded CapacityPlus “Rapid Retention Survey Toolkit: Designing Evidence-Based Incentives for Health Workers,” this course will orient participants on how to use a rapid discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology to design evidence-based incentives to attract and retain health workers in rural and remote areas. This course was designed to be used in conjunction with the Toolkit, and it is strongly recommended that you have a copy of the Toolkit open as you take the lessons. [Note: this course requires a free login]
Emerging Opportunities for Recruiting and Retaining a Rural Health Workfoce through Decentralized Health Financing Systems. Bulletin of WHO. Volume 88; Issue 5. 2010 (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This paper looks at the potential for decentralization to lead to better health workforce recruitment, performance and retention in rural areas through the creation of additional revenue for the health sector; better use of existing financial resources; and creation of financial incentives for health workers.
Empowering Primary Care Workers to Improve Health Services: Results from Mozambique’s Leadership and Management Development Program. Human Resources for Health, 2008. (Action Field: Leadership; Resource)
This article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership development program created by Management Sciences for Health (MSH). Through this program, managers from 40 countries have learned to work in teams to identify their priority challenges and act to implement effective responses.From 2003 to 2004, 11 health units in Nampula Province, participated in a leadership and management development program called the Challenges Program. This was following an assessment which found that the quality of health services was poor, and senior officials determined that the underlying cause was the lack of human resource capacity in leadership and management in a rapidly decentralizing health care system. An evaluation of the program in 2005 showed that 10 of 11 health centers improved health services over the year of the program.
Ensuring a Positive Practice Environment: Occupational Safety and Health for Health Worker Productivity. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
Effective OSH measures are universally recognized as essential contributors to national workforce health and productivity (WHO 1994; ILO 2001; Houtman, Jettinghoff, and Cedillo 2007). However, only 5%-10% of workers in developing countries have adequate occupational health services (Houtman, Jettinghoff, and Cedillo 2007), and the rate of on-the-job injuries among health workers increased in the last decade (NIOSH 2009). Sub-Saharan Africa represents the area with the highest occupational exposures (Houtman, Jettinghoff, and Cedillo 2007; Reda et al. 2010).
Ethiopia’s Human Resources for Health Programme. Global Health Workforce Alliance, World Health Organization, Case study, January 2008 (Action Field: Education; Resource)
The report describes how the Government of Ethiopia is attempting to tackle the shortage of health workers, particularly acute in rural areas. 30,000 health extension workers are being trained to be deployed at the community level to deliver essential health services. 5,000 additional health officers will be trained to supervise and support health extension workers.
Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program: Improving Health through Community Involvement. 2011 (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Everybody’s Business: Strengthening Health Systems to Improve Health Outcomes: WHO’s Framework for Action. World Health Organization, 2007. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
A key purpose of the Framework is to promote common understanding of what a health system is and what constitutes health systems strengthening. The approach of this Framework is to define a discrete number of “building blocks” that make up the system. These are based on the functions defined in World health report 2000. The building blocks are: service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; financing; and leadership and governance (stewardship).
Exploring Contraceptive Use Differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa through a Health Workforce Lens. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Leadership; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Use of nearly all methods of modern contraception requires contact with a health worker—a doctor, nurse, midwife, community health worker, or pharmacist. As a result, access to trained health workers is a principal supply-side determinant of family planning service use. Although 13% of the world’s population is located in sub-Saharan Africa, less than 3% of the world’s health workers are located on the subcontinent according to the most recent estimates. This lack of access to health workers is especially acute in sub-Saharan Africa where only 19% of married women use a modern method of contraception, the lowest regional contraceptive prevalence rate in the world.
FHI360 Health System Rapid Diagnostic Tool: “How to Guide” to diagnose the performance of a health system. 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
Developed by FHI 360, this “how to guide” is intended for country offices and their partners to diagnose the performance of health system functions that are priorities within their particular country and program contexts. The tool has unique features, including: being rooted in a country-led design process to develop a customized assessment, focusing on priority health system functions, and taking a systems view of performance; i.e. defining performance of a function in terms of determinants, processes and results and seeking to uncover underlying root causes of weak performance. [adapted from website]
Financial Management Assessment Tool (FINMAT). MSH, 2010 (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
FinMAT helps managers assess their organizations’ financial management capacity, identify areas for improvement, make specific action plans to address shortcomings, and monitor for improvement The heart of FinMAT is an instrument for collecting and summarizing technical information about an organization’s financial management systems and practices. A guide provides all the materials and instructions needed to use the tool to collect data, develop a consensus on needed improvements, and integrate recommendations for improvement into an organization’s work plans. The tool is provided in an interactive form in a Microsoft Excel file as well as in print form in the guide. Both the guide and the Excel version of the tool can be downloaded from below at no cost. FinMAT is designed for organizations that manage their own finances and can be used in NGOs or private-sector institutions, such as hospitals; ministries or other public-sector institutions; central offices or headquarters; and decentralized organizational units at regional, provincial, and district levels. [from website]
Financing and Economic Aspects of Health Workforce Scale-up and Improvement: Framework Paper Global Health Workforce Alliance and World Health Organization, 2009. (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This paper, developed by the Alliance Task Force on Human Resources for Health Financing, identifies key considerations for countries and policymakers in planning the financing of their health workforce, and is based on an extensive review and synthesis of the literature, research findings, and experience on the financing and economic aspects of health workforce scale-up and improvement.
Foundations of Gender Equality in the Health Workforce. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Education; Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
This course is intended to expose the participant to basic concepts, issues, and standards related to gender equality in the health workforce. [Note: this course requires a free login]
Framework for Purchasing Health Care Labor. World Bank, 2004. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
This paper is intended to provide a brief introduction to health care labor purchasing and the mechanisms through which it can have an impact on the delivery of health services and on health system performance. A framework is developed to foster understanding of health labor purchasing mechanisms. This framework examines the different types and characteristics of the purchasers and providers. It also examines the “terms of labor purchasing”—that is, working conditions (career development, contract duration, working time and shift work, work autonomy and separation), remuneration and benefits
Gender-Based Violence Training Modules: A Collection and Review of Existing Materials for Training Health Workers. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Resource)
Addressing gender-based violence (GBV) successfully is an important step toward achieving Millennium Development Goals in the areas of gender equality, infant and maternal health and mortality and HIV/AIDS. Training health workers to identify, treat and respond effectively to GBV is essential for the health sector and the communities that health workers serve. In 2005 and 2006, the Capacity Project conducted a search of existing training modules and training support materials on GBV, particularly those intended for health care personnel in order to identify and review existing GBV training modules that could be adapted and/or integrated into pre-service education or in-service training curricula in developing countries. In the resource’s pages, the review team summarizes the modules considered to represent best practices in GBV training.
Gender: Missing Dimension in Human Resource Policy and Planning for Health Reforms. Hilary Standing, 2000. (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
This article takes up the relatively neglected issue of gender in human resources policy and planning (HRPP), with particular reference to the health sector in developing countries. Current approaches to human resources lack any reference to gender issues. Meeting the health needs of women as major users and potential beneficiaries of health services is a key international concern. This article argues that in order to do this, attention must also be paid to both equal opportunities and efficiency issues in the health sector workforce, given the highly gender segregated nature of occupations in the health sector and the potential for both gender inequity and inefficiency in the use of human resources which this poses. Taking gender seriously in HRPP entails developing appropriate methodologies for data collection, monitoring and evaluation. The paper suggests some basic ways of doing this and provides a framework for incorporating gender concerns in health reform processes.
Global Experience of Community Health Workers for Delivery of Health Related Millennium Development Goals: A Systematic Review, Country Case Studies, and Recommendations for Integration into National Health Systems. GHWA, October 2010 (Action Field: Education; Resource)
Participation of community health workers (CHWs) in the provision of primary health care has been experienced all over the world for several decades, and there is an amount of evidence showing that they can add significantly to the efforts of improving the health of the population, particularly in those settings with the highest shortage of motivated and capable health professionals. With the overall aim of identifying CHWs programs with positive impact on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to health or otherwise, a global systematic review was undertaken of such interventions, as well as eight in-depth country case studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia Mozambique and Uganda), South East Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan and Thailand) and Latin America (Brazil and Haiti). The focus was on key aspects of these programs, encompassing typology of CHWs, selection, training, supervision, standards for evaluation and certification, deployment patterns, in-service training, performance, and impact assessment.
Global Experience of Community Health Workers for Delivery of Health Related Millennium Development Goals: A Systematic Review, Country Case Studies, and Recommendations for Integration into National Health Systems. 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
“Participation of community health workers (CHWs) in the provision of primary health care has been experienced all over the world for several decades, and there is an amount of evidence showing that they can add significantly to the efforts of improving the health of the population, particularly in those settings with the highest shortage of motivated and capable health professionals. With the overall aim of identifying CHWs programs with positive impact on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) related to health or otherwise, this global systematic review was undertaken of such interventions, as well as eight in-depth country case studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia Mozambique and Uganda), South East Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan and Thailand) and Latin America (Brazil and Haiti). The focus was on key aspects of these programs, encompassing typology of CHWs, selection, training, supervision, standards for evaluation and certification, deployment pat¬terns, in-service training, performance, and impact assessment.” [adapted from website]
Global Partnerships: Strengthening Human Resources for Health Approaches Together. The Capacity Project, 2009 (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Governance and Human Resources for Health. 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. This thematic series aims to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning. [adapted from abstract]
Governance Approaches to Reducing Absenteeism. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
From a health systems perspective, absenteeism—defined as chronic, unexcused absence from work—adversely affects health worker productivity and undermines health service quality. Since the 2006 World Health Report, some studies have been undertaken to systematically measure absenteeism’s effects; however, more needs to be done to adequately address underlying motivation and accountability issues, inform country policies, and reduce health worker absenteeism.
Guide for Training Community Leaders to Improve Leadership and Management Practices. MSH, 2008 (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
Guidelines for Assessing Distance Learning Programmes. International Council of Nurses, 2004. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
These guidelines are intended to contribute to making informed decisions about undertaking distance learning. The guidelines highlight the need to look critically at the feasibility of undertaking this mode of learning, the quality of the programs available and the credibility of the provider institution and the award given. These guidelines are intended to support persons considering undertaking learning at a distance, decision makers charged with selecting and funding distance learning programs and educators and decision makers currently providing learning at a distance or considering launching distance learning programs.
Guidelines for Forming and Sustaining Human Resources for Health Stakeholder Leadership Groups. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Leadership; Partnership; Tool/Guideline)
These stakeholder leadership group (SLG) guidelines are intended to provide a practical, clear, and user-friendly set of actions that human resources for health (HRH) leaders at the country level can take to successfully launch and sustain SLGs. While these carefully selected recommended actions are drawn from evidence and extensive field experience, it is important to note that this is not a study, research report, or literature review. For those who are interested in more extensive studies or background reading, please see the list of references at the end of the guidelines.
Guidelines for Human Resources for Health Policy and Plan Development at Country Level (Draft). World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 2004. (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
These guidelines support review and development of human resources situation analyses, policies and plans and can be adapted as necessary for country use. The primary target group includes HRH managers in the Ministries of Health, health facilities and other government ministries such as Education, Planning and Civil or Public Service agencies dealing with HRH development.
Guidelines: Incentives for Health Professionals. Global Health Workforce Alliance; International Council of Nurses; International Hospital Federation; International Pharmaceutical Federation; World Confederation for Physical Therapy; World Dental Federation; World Medical Association, 2008. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
This paper was commissioned by the health professions with the support of the Global Health Workforce Alliance to provide an overview of the use of incentives for health care professionals. It describes some of the different approaches taken and presents characteristics shared by effective incentive schemes. The paper also suggests some approaches to their development and implementation. [from introduction]
Guiding Principles for National Health Workforce Strategies Health Workforce Advisory Initiative of the Global Health Workforce Alliance. (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
These guidelines are intended primarily for the policymakers and other people involved in developing and evaluating national health workforce plans, including ministry of health officials, health workers, civil society advocates, development partners, and technical advisors. What should these plans – which should be country-developed and country-led – contain? How should they be developed to give them the best chance of significantly improving health outcomes and moving countries as rapidly as possible towards universal access to essential health interventions? The guidelines should serve as overarching principles that will promote the success of health workforce plans, while ensuring that they are consistent with human rights.
Handbook for Measurement and Monitoring: Indicators of the Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization, 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
The purpose of the handbook is to provide a standardized reference document for countries of the Region that clarifies the terms and parameters of each of the twenty goals of PAHO’s Resolution #CSP27/10, “Regional Goals for Human Resources for Health (HRH) 2007-2015,” in order that they may be consistently understood, applied, measured and monitored.
As a self-contained technical instruction manual, the handbook is intended to provide a practical tool to guide the identification and definition of initial baseline data to be collected in order to provide a descriptive profile of countries’ human resources for health to facilitate monitoring their progress towards achieving their HRH goals over time.
Health Informatics Education and Training Programs: Important Factors to Consider. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
Health informatics is of growing importance in efforts to improve health outcomes across the globe, involving many components of health systems. It is primarily concerned with the process of making health-related data accessible and useful for evidence-based decision-making. To take advantage of the potential advantages offered by health informatics, health workers must be able to access relevant data and be comfortable with its application. Therefore, preservice education and in-service training in information technology should be part of the national investment in health systems. CapacityPlus can assist countries in successfully meeting that commitment.
Health Managers Toolkit. MSH (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
This toolkit includes: Clinic Supervisor’s Manual, Computer Based Tools to Improve Supervision, Monitoring and Evaluation of Reproductive Health Programs, Developing a Salary Policy, Employee Satisfaction Survey, Guide for Training Community Leaders to Improve Leadership and Management Practices, Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool for Health Organizations, Human Resources Management Resource Kit, Performance Management Tool, Supervisor Competency Self-Assessment Inventory.
Health Policy Assessment Tool. USAID Health Policy Initiative, May 2010 (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Health Workforce Innovations: A Synthesis of Four Promising Practices. Health Workforce Innovations: A Synthesis of Four Promising Practices. The Capacity Project, 2007. (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
While publications like the World Health Report have described general approaches that can be taken to improve the human resources for health (HRH) situation at the country level, there is a relative paucity of more detailed documentation that describes promising practices that would be useful to HRH leaders and practitioners. As a result, USAID’s Africa Bureau commissioned a study to identify and document promising practices in a way that takes into account the context of the practice, describes lessons learned and puts forth potential implications for replication in other countries. The intent of the promising practices study is to “serve as a practical and much needed resource for governments, partners and donors in promulgating policies and approaches that have successfully mitigated the negative effects of the health workforce crisis.” After consultation within USAID, it was decided that the study would focus on promising practices in four African countries: task shifting in Ghana and Uganda, improving retention in Malawi, and increasing recruitment and rapid deployment in Namibia.
Health Workforce Planning Workbook. Centre for Public Health, University of New South Wales, 2001. (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
This learning tool can be used as a basis for undertaking a planning exercise in a country. It is probably best used by a small group that wishes to learn about planning approaches and some tools.
Health Workforce Skill Mix and Task Shifting in Low Income Countries: A Review of Recent Evidence. January 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Health workforce needs-based shortages and skill mix imbalances are significant health workforce challenges. Task shifting, defined as delegating tasks to existing or new cadres with either less training or narrowly tailored training, is a potential strategy to address these challenges. This study uses an economics perspective to review the skill mix literature to determine its strength of the evidence, identify gaps in the evidence, and to propose a research agenda. [adapted from abstract]
How to Pay: Understanding and Using Incentives. World Bank, 2004. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
Many countries have experimented with alternative ways of paying providers of health care services. This paper illustrates different methods, suggests some of the theoretic advantages and limitations of each and provides a general theoretical framework for evaluating alternatives.
HRH Global Resource Center eLearning Platform. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Education; Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The HRH Global Resource Center eLearning platform offers free courses developed by technical experts in the fields of human resources for health, health informatics and health service delivery to build the capacity of country-based users in critical skills development. [Note: free signup required]
HRH Global Resource Center. The Capacity Project/CapacityPlus, 2008 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The HRH Global Resource Center is a global library of human resources for health (HRH) resources focused on developing countries.
HRIS Strengthening Implementation Toolkit. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
This Toolkit provides a package of HRIS procedures and tools to HRH stakeholders, HR information system managers, and software developers to facilitate applying the HRIS strengthening processes and iHRIS software offered by CapacityPlus. The Toolkit collects briefs, forms, case studies, resources and other materials to assist with all five steps of the HRIS strengthening process.
Human Resource Leadership: The Key to Improved Results in Health. Human Resources for Health, 2008. (Action Field: Leadership; Resource)
This article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today’s context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP) is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers’ attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.
Human Resource Management (HRM) Assessment Instrument for NGOs and Public Sector Health Organizations. Management Sciences for Health, 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The purpose of this tool is to provide users with a rapid assessment tool to identify an organization’s capacity in the area of Human Resource Management (HRM) and to use these results to develop improvement strategies.
Human Resource Management (HRM) Assessment Tool for HIV/AIDS Environments. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The purpose of this tool is to provide users with a rapid assessment tool to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the HRM system, including the effectiveness to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health workforce and to help users develop an action plan to improve the system.
Human Resources and Financing for the Health Sector in Malawi. Authors Picazo and Martineau. World Bank, MOH Malawi. 2009 (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This report summarizes the key problems in the health sector and their implications on human resources for health and financing of the health sector; discusses the issues on human resources for health; explores options for improving the production, deployment, retention and management of these workers; analyzes the current state of financing in the health sector; explores options for the financing of essential health services and non-EHP services; and summarizes the way forward. [adapted from introduction]
Human Resources for Health (HRH) Indicator Compendium. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
This compendium provides a list of published indicators on human resources for health (HRH) organized according to the results framework of the CapacityPlus project. The objective of this compendium is to provide a tool for HRH systems strengthening practitioners interested in monitoring HRH projects and programs.
Human Resources for Health Planning and Management in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Facts, Gaps and Forward Thinking for Research and Policy. Human Resources for Health, 2007. (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH). The World Health Report (WHR) 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2) generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs) in the context of EMR; (3) identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know) and (4) provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy.
Human Resources for Health Programs for Countries in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
This resource paper explores operational challenges, opportunities and goals common to initiating HRH programs in context and post-conflict situations.
Human Resources for Health: A Gender Analysis. Asha George, 2007. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
In this paper I discuss gender issues manifested within health occupations and across them. In particular, I examine gender dynamics in medicine, nursing, community health workers and home careers. I also explore from a gender perspective issues concerning delegation, migration and violence, which cut across these categories of health workers. These occupational categories and themes reflect priorities identified by the terms of reference for this review paper and also the themes that emerged from the accessed literature.
Human Resources for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health: From Measurement and Planning to Performance for Improved Health Outcomes. June 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
There is increasing attention, globally and in countries, to monitoring and addressing the health systems and human resources inputs, processes and outputs that impede or facilitate progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health. This article reviews the situation of human resources for health (HRH) in 68 low- and middle-income countries that together account for over 95% of all maternal and child deaths. Its analysis of cross-nationally comparable data on HRH availability, distribution, roles and functions from new and existing sources, and information from country reviews of HRH interventions shows those components with positive impacts on health services delivery and population health outcomes. [adapted from abstract]
Human Resources Management (HRM) in the Health Sector. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Improving how health care providers are managed is a key to strengthening the services they deliver. This short technical brief synthesizes findings from recent publications on the subject of HRM to help promote general understanding among the various HRM actors, especially HR managers and practitioners in developing countries. While not the result of a thorough academic study, the brief presents the broad current issues and provides some suggestions for improving HRM in order to strengthen the performance of national health systems in developing countries.
Human Resources Management Assessment Approach. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The CapacityPlus partnership has developed this human resources management assessment approach to guide policy-makers, managers, and human resources (HR) practitioners toward better understanding and responding to human resources management challenges facing their health systems.
iHRIS Suite. Capacity/CapacityPlus, 2008 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
iHRIS is an easy-to-use system for capturing, maintaining, and reporting high-quality health workforce information. iHRIS enables countries to understand how many health workers they have, what their qualifications and skills are, where they are posted, and how many new workers are likely to join them. Built on a flexible framework and distributed under an open source license, iHRIS can be customized and extended to address local needs.
Improving the Implementation of Health Workforce Policies Through Governance: A Review of Case Studies. Human Resources for Health, April 2011 (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Incorporating Lay Human Resources to Increase Accessibility to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Home-Based Approach in Uganda. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
This resource paper discusses the practices developed for attracting, selecting, recruiting, training, deploying, supporting and retaining a workforce of 89 field officers (lay workers). A one page summary of the report is also available.
Increasing Access to Health Workers in Remote and Rural Areas through Improved Retention. 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
“Globally, approximately one half of the population lives in rural areas, but less than 38% of the nurses and less than 25% of the physicians work there. While getting and keeping health workers in rural and remote areas is a challenge for all countries, the situation is worse in the 57 countries that have an absolute shortage of health workers. After a year-long consultative effort, this document proposes sixteen evidence-based recommendations on how to improve the recruitment and retention of health workers in underserved areas. It also offers a guide for policy makers to choose the most appropriate interventions, and to implement, monitor and evaluate their impact over time.” [from website]
Information Systems on Human Resources for Health: A Global Review. 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH) and their appropriate distribution, human resources information systems (HRIS) that generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows is minimal. This review of the available literature was conducted to develop a baseline on HRIS implementation processes. Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, with a high percentage of countries reporting the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, yet few systems documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23 % explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56 %) did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. The absence of standardized HRIS profiles (including documented processes for data collection, management, and use) limits understanding of the availability and quality of information that can be used to support effective and efficient HRH strategies and investments at the national, regional, and global levels. [adapted from abstract]
Innovative Financing Options for the Preservice Education of Health Professionals. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
The World Health Organization (2006) has estimated that there is a shortage of four million health workers globally, one million of whom are needed in Africa alone. Despite significant investments in scaling up health workers made by a variety of developing-country governments and donors, the available funding falls grossly short of what is required. Clearly, if the world is to meet its health workforce needs, new sources of funding for health worker education need to be found.
Integrating Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Services: Health Workforce Considerations. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
The US Government’s Global Health Initiative includes increased impact through strategic coordination and integration as one of its seven core principles (United States Government 2011). Consequently, governments and the international community are increasingly paying attention to evaluating health systems components as variables in integration approaches. Yet most of the evaluations of service integration models have virtually ignored the health worker as input to or output of integrated service delivery. This technical brief assesses the evidence on the role of health workers in the integration of family planning (FP) and HIV services and discusses key health worker considerations when integrating FP/HIV services, regardless of the integration model.
Integrating Gender into the Curricula for Health Professionals: Meeting Report. World Health Organization, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
This report summarizes the discussion and final recommendations from the meeting. Section one presents an overview of experiences with integrating gender considerations into the curricula for health professionals, based on the background review carried out in preparation for the meeting. Section two presents case examples describing a range of initiatives presented during the meeting, on integrating gender considerations into the medical (nursing and midwifery) curriculum. Section 3 presents the results of deliberations during the consultation. It consists of a synthesis of lessons learned about enabling conditions and strategies for integrating gender issues into the curricula of health professionals; recommendations for core minimum gender competencies for physicians and public health professionals; and a consensus statement for moving the agenda forward.
Interactive Costing Tool Guide. Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health–PMNCH and WHO. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
Policy makers and technical staff know that the appropriate use of costing tools can help shape national health policies, strengthen advocacy for increased investments to achieve health targets, and inform planning and budgeting processes. But how can stakeholders select, and access, an appropriate costing tool for their particular objectives? To assist in this process, the Partnership has developed an interactive online Costing Tool Guide in collaboration with USAID through the Health Systems 20/20 Project, Management Sciences for Health, Norad, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank.
The Costing Tools Guide leads users through a short series of questions to help select an appropriate costing tool and understand the different parameters to consider before undergoing a costing exercise. Now, this Guide goes one step further—leading you through an interactive process to the tool which best suits your purpose. Video tutorials on the use of the Costing Tool Guide are provided, along with details about the tools, including how to access them. The content of the guide can be easily modified and updated, for example when new tools become available. Try it out. [from website]
Learning for Performance: A Guide and Toolkit for Health Worker Training and Education Programs. The Capacity Project/CapacityPlus, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
This manual presents a systematic instructional design process and accompanying tools that help connect learning to specific job responsibilities and competencies.
Making It Happen: Using Distance Learning to Improve Reproductive Health Provider Performance. PRIME II, 2002 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
A practical how-to guide for developing distance learning programs in low-resource settings, the guide presents a clear, step-by-step path from conceptualization through evaluation, with detailed examples from program experiences in developing countries.
Management and Organizational Sustainability Tool (MOST). MSH, 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
“The Management and Organizational Sustainability Tool (MOST) is a process for improving an organization’s management, with the end result of contributing to improved services. This tool can help organizations map the development of key management components and use these results for planning improvements and monitoring progress.” [from website]
Managers Who Lead Toolkit: Resources to Support Managers Who Lead. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2005. (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
This toolkit, part of Managers Who Lead: A Handbook for Improving Health Services, provides managers and facilitators with exercises, tools and guidelines to improve managers’ skills in leading and managing teams and strengthening individual and team performance to produce results. It includes step-by-step guidelines and handouts for facilitating small or large group work.
Managing Partnerships. World Health Organization, 2008. (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Managing partnerships is important for effective health services delivery. Partners or stakeholders might include the community, civil society organisations, other sectors, district, regional and national authorities, donors, private providers, and others. This resource describes approaches for working with partners, involving communities, working with private sector, working with donors, and accountability to stakeholders.
Managing Your Organization’s Finances. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2006. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
In addition to their primary role—delivering services—health managers are responsible for ensuring that their organization’s resources are used responsibly and appropriately and are adequate to meet future needs. This resource examines two topic areas—financial sustainability and financial management—that support the development of sustainable health services and the mastery of a number of financial management concepts and skills to help managers prepare financial plans and monitor closely and use their program’s resources in the most responsible, appropriate and cost-effective manner possible.
Mobilizing Local Resources to Support Health Programs. The Manager, Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2002. (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
This issue of The Manager discusses the role of local resources in strengthening health services. It will help health managers at the local level to identify types of local resources that may be available to them, decide on strategies for mobilizing these resources and assess the value of such resources to their organization or program.
Monitoring the Building Blocks of Health Systems: A Handbook of Indicators and Their Measurement Strategies. World Health Organization, 2010. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
Increased attention to the strengthening of health systems would not be sustainable in the absence of a sound monitoring strategy that enables decision-makers to accurately track health progress and performance, evaluate impact, and ensure accountability at country and global levels. This handbook describes a set of indicators and related measurement strategies, structured around the WHO framework that describes health systems in terms of six “building blocks”: service delivery, health workforce, information, medicines, financing and governance.
Monitoring the Health Workforce: Measurement Issues and Tools. World Health Organization, 2008. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
This brief provides a list of facility-based data collection tools that have been developed by the World Health Organization and other partners. The resources can be used to meet a wide range of specific information needs on human resources in health systems. [adapted from summary]
Network-Based Social Capital and Capacity-Building Programs: An Example from Ethiopia. 2010 (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Partnership Building: Practical Tools to Help You Create, Strengthen, Assess and Manage Your Partnership or Alliance More Productively. Capacity Project, 2007. (Action Field: Partnership; Tool/Guideline)
The complex and wide ranging challenges related to human resources for health in developing countries necessitates that stakeholders work together through inclusive alliances and networks. This toolkit aims to offer those wanting to create a partnership, as well as those already working in one, some easily accessible tools to support that process. Using the wisdom and experience of those in the field as well as what the current literature offers, the kit offers some helpful, succinct guidance on identifying potential alliance partners; facilitating a dynamic and helpful kick-off meeting; creating an appropriate memorandum of understanding; and more.
Paying for Performance in Health: Guide to Developing the Blueprint. USAID Health Systems 20/20 Project, 2008. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
Pay for performance (P4P) is an innovative approach that explicitly links financial investment in health to health results. Intended for country health program managers, including those representing government, non-government, and donor agencies, this Guide offers the reader a systematic framework to document and structure his/her thought process, rationale, and ultimate decisions made when designing a P4P initiative. In following each recommended step of the Guide (facilitated by technical support from experienced P4P implementers), the user is alerted to factors and issues that can influence the success of a P4P scheme. Upon completion of the Guide, the user will have produced a “blueprint” design or “gameplan” for introducing P4P to his/her program area/country.
Performance-Based Reimbursement Scheme: A Final Report of a Pilot Study. RTI International, NGO Service Delivery Program, 2006. (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This resource paper presents the results of a pilot study to gauge the impact of a performance-based reimbursement scheme in improving health clinic and NGO cost recovery rates and service levels to the poorest of the poor (POP).
Planning and Costing Human Resources for Health. Glassman, Becker, Makinen, de feranti. The Lancet. Volume 371. Issue 9613. 2008. (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This article outlines different efforts at making strategic HRH plans in the developing world. The article focuses on the financial aspects of HRH planning and provides some general guidelines on the best way to make these plans.
Policies and Plans for Human Resources for Health. Guidelines for Countries in the WHO African Region. WHO African Region, 2006 (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Policy Options to Attract Nurses in Rural Liberia: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment. WHO, November 2010 (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Population Growth and the Global Health Workforce Crisis. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
This data-rich technical brief examines the potential impact of population growth on countries’ efforts to improve access to health workers, and recommends an approach that will help meet families’ health needs while mitigating the health workforce crisis.
Postgraduate Medical Education: WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement. World Federation for Medical Education, 2003. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) works to raise the global standards of medical education. Their trilogy of Global Standards (prepared with partner organizations, including the WHO) covers three phases of medical education: basic medical education, postgraduate medical education and continuing professional development.
Pre-Service Education Toolkit. MCHIP, 2011 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The pre-service education toolkit outlines key programmatic steps, highlights lessons learned, and identifies key resources to assist country programs, donors, and governments to develop quality and relevant pre-service education interventions. Each section provides evidence-based guidance and includes related resources. Although originally developed with a focus on health workers who deliver maternal and newborn health care, the process outlined in the toolkit can be applied to any pre-service program.
Preservice Education Family Planning Reference Guide. IntraHealth 2010 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
This guide was developed to assist preservice health institutions in Malawi in creating, updating, or adapting the family planning content of their curricula and individual courses. Included in this document are materials that institutions and individual tutors can use to develop technically accurate and pedagogically sound lessons on family planning.
Public Stewardship of Private Providers in Mixed Health Systems. Institutes for Development, Rockefeller Foundation, 2009 (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Rapid Retention Survey Toolkit: Designing Evidence-Based Incentives for Health Workers. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
The Rapid Retention Survey Toolkit is intended to allow human resources managers to determine health professionals’ motivational preferences for accepting and remaining in posts. The toolkit builds on the WHO global policy recommendations for rural retention and is based on the discrete choice experiment (DCE), a powerful research method that identifies the trade-offs health professionals (or other types of workers) are willing to make between specific job characteristics and determines their preferences for various incentive packages, including the probability of accepting a post in a rural health facility.
Recruitment and Hiring. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), n.d. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
Recruitment and hiring are two of the more critical management functions of the organization. It is important to have a clear commitment to recruitment and hiring practices that are equitable to all people and free of bias against individuals because of their gender, race, color, religious creed, sexual orientation, age, disability or HIV/AIDS status. This tool discusses recruitment and illustrates steps in the staff recruitment/hiring process.
Reducing Geographical Imbalances of Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank. 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
“This report discusses and analyzes labor market dynamics and outcome (including unemployment, worker shortages, and urban-rural imbalances of categories of health workers) from a labor economics perspective. It then uses insights from this perspective as a basis for elaborating policy options that incorporate the underlying labor market forces.” [from website]
Resource Requirements Tool (RRT). Global Health Workforce Alliance, 2009. (Action Field: Finance; Tool/Guideline)
The Alliance Task Force on Human Resources for Health Financing of the Global Health Workforce Alliance (The Alliance) has developed the Resource Requirements Tool (RRT). The purpose of this practical, Excel-based tool is to support countries to:
- estimate and project the resources required for meeting their HRH plans;
- analyze the plans’ affordability;
- simulate “what if” scenarios;
- facilitate the monitoring of scale-up plans;
- contribute to the development of the cost and financing component of Human Resource Management Information Systems.
This tool can be ordered from the Global Health Workforce Alliance.
Scaling Up Health Worker Production: The Bottlenecks and Best Buys Approach. CapacityPlus, 2013 (Action Field: Education; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
Over one billion people worldwide lack access to essential health services (World Bank 2000). The only route to reaching better health outcomes is through health workers; there are no shortcuts or quick fixes. However, the World Health Organization (2006) estimates that there is a global shortage of approximately 4.3 million doctors, nurses, midwives, and support workers, and not enough health workers are being educated and trained to fill this gap—especially in Africa where the health needs are greatest.
Scaling Up Proven Public Health Interventions through a Locally Owned and Sustained Leadership Development Programme in Rural Upper Egypt. Human Resources for Health, 2010 (Action Field: Leadership; Resource)
Scaling Up, Saving Lives. Global Health Workforce Alliance, 2008. (Action Field: Education; Resource)
This report calls for a rapid and significant scaling up of the education and training of health workers as part of a broader effort to strengthen health systems. It highlights the importance of training to meet a country’s own health needs and the great opportunity represented by the increased use of community- and mid-level workers.
Service Targets Staff Projection Tool: User Guide. 2011 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
“The Service Target Staffing Projection Tool is designed to estimate the workforce required to deliver an agreed package of health services. The tool helps to set targets for production and recruitment of staff based on assumptions concerning the staff required at each level of the health system.” [from website]
Stakeholder Leadership Guidelines. CapacityPlus, 2011 (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
Strategy for the Rapid Start-up of the HIV/AIDS Program in Namibia: Outsourcing the Recruitment and Management of Human Resources for Health. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
This resource paper focuses on the process of setting up a management contract with a private sector human resources provider, resulting in the rapid hiring and deployment of more than 500 health and non-health workers over a two-year period.
Strengthening Health Professional Associations. The Capacity Project, 2007. (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
Strengthening Health Professional Associations discusses various approaches for strengthening professional associations and outlines the benefits and challenges of such efforts.
Strengthening Management Capacity. World Health Organization, 2008. (Action Field: Leadership; Resource)
Managers are an essential component of the health workforce. Good management is essential for quality service delivery and achieving desired health outcomes. This resource details a balanced, strategic approach to strengthening management capacity. [from introduction]
Strengthening the Health Worker Pipeline through Gender-Transformative Strategies. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Education; Human Resource Management Systems; Policy; Tool/Guideline)
A competent, motivated health workforce has adequate numbers and types of well-trained and fairly remunerated health workers deployed to where they are most needed. To achieve this, countries have implemented interventions aimed at strengthening preservice education (PSE), including curriculum development, financing, and institutional management reforms. An equally important issue to address in the production of health workers is gender discrimination in PSE settings. Gender discrimination is “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles and norms that prevents a person from enjoying full human rights” (World Health Organization 2001, 43).
Supporting Existing Health Cadres in Learning New Skills: Tools and Approaches. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The Capacity Project has identified and categorized existing tools and approaches that support health cadres in learning new skills, especially in the area of HIV/AIDS. This paper includes examples of potential resources, providing web links in the appendices.
Task Shifting for a Strategic Skill Mix. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Education; Resource)
Task shifting is increasingly considered a promising intervention for strengthening national health coverage by improving the strategic skill mix in the country’s health care system. In this technical brief, task shifting refers to two processes: 1) shifting tasks from one cadre of health care worker to an existing, lower-level cadre and 2) shifting tasks to a new cadre developed to meet specific health care goals. Based on a review of the literature and country examples, the brief describes why task shifting is important and highlights some key steps in planning for, developing and supporting cadres involved in task shifting.
Task Shifting: Rational Redistribution of Tasks Among Health Workforce Teams, Global Recommendations and Guidelines. World Health Organization, 2008. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
This set of 22 recommendations provide overall guidance to those countries that are considering adopting or extending a task shifting approach. The recommendations and guidelines identify and define the key elements that must be in place if the approach is to prove safe, efficient, effective, equitable and sustainable. They cover the need for consultation, situation analysis and national endorsement, and for an enabling regulatory framework. They specify the quality assurance mechanisms, including standardized training, supportive supervision, and certification and assessment, that will be important to ensure quality of care. They cover the elements that will need to be considered for the purpose of ensuring adequate resources for implementation and offer advice on the organization of clinical care services under a task shifting approach.
The Right to Health and Health Workforce Planning: A Guide for Government Officials, NGOs, Health Workers and Development Partners Physicians for Human Rights, 2008. (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
The purpose of this guide is to explain why it is necessary to ground health workforce planning in human rights, and how to develop a plan that does just that.
The Role of Leadership in HRH Development in Challenging Public Health Settings. Human Resources for Health, 2008 (Action Field: Leadership; Resource)
The Sub-Saharan African Medical School Study (SAMSS) is an examination of the state of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa including all countries, all identified and recognized schools, and all languages of instruction. The study was undertaken to help provide a platform of understanding regarding the status, trends and present and future capacity building efforts for educators, policy makers, and international organizations.
Tools for Planning and Developing Human Resources for HIV/AIDS and Other Health Services. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2006. (Action Field: Policy; Tool/Guideline)
These collected tools and guidelines will assist health program managers, policy makers and leaders to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health workforce and its capacity to deliver and scale up HIV/AIDS services.
Training and Learning Standards. IntraHealth, October, 2012 (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
The Training and Learning Standards are statements that define the generally accepted practice to ensure the quality of training and learning activities. These training and learning standards in this document were created to guide those who are responsible for planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating training programs of many types. The standards outline the elements that effective training and learning programs should include and serve as a foundation upon which curricula and programs should be developed, supported, and evaluated.
Training Toolkit. I-TECH (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
Developed by the International Training and Educational Center for Health (I-TECH), this toolkit offers over 250 practical resources for trainers. The toolkit leads users though key steps in training program development and offers case studies of successful programs. Training coordinators, curriculum developers, and trainers can all use the toolkit in preparing and presenting HIV and AIDS-related trainings. The materials are geared for those seeking to educate health care professionals on topics such as preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections, and voluntary counseling and testing.
Training Works! What You Need to Know about Managing, Designing, Delivering and Evaluating Group-Based Training. JHPIEGO, 2003. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
Effective training can help providers of family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) services to improve their performance. This handbook, which is designed for anyone who has a role in the management, design, delivery or evaluation of group-based training for health care professionals currently providing services such as in-service training, summarizes the tasks that should be completed at each stage of training to ensure an effective training course.
Transformative Scale Up of Health Professional Education. WHO, 2011 (Action Field: Education; Resource)
This information brochure provides a background and overview of the WHO’s effort to provide guidance on the transformative scale up of health professional education.
Transportability of Tertiary Qualifications and CPD: A Continuing Challenge for the Global Health Workforce. 2012 (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Using Collaborative Approaches to Reach Human Resources for Health (HRH) Goals. Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Partnership; Resource)
This technical brief offers best practices and lessons learned from a combination of key themes in current literature and practice regarding the benefits of collaborative ventures. The brief suggests some plausible answers to the following: 1) what are the benefits of participating in a collaborative venture; 2) what are the challenges and common pitfalls that can occur; and 3) what does it take to collaborate productively and to sustain the collaboration?
Using Staffing Ratios for Workforce Planning: Evidence on Nine Allied Health Professions. 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
The aim of this study was to identify workforce ratios in nine allied health professions and to identify whether these measures are useful for planning allied health workforce requirements. Twelve articles were identified which described the use of workforce ratios in allied health services. Only one of these was a staffing ratio linked to clinical outcomes. The most comprehensive measures were identified in rehabilitation medicine. The evidence for use of staffing ratios for allied health practitioners is scarce and lags behind the fields of nursing and medicine. [adapted from abstract]
Validating a Work Group Climate Assessment Tool for Improving the Performance of Public Health Organizations. Human Resources for Health, 2005. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
This article describes the validation of an instrument to measure work group climate in public health organizations in developing countries. The Work Climate Assessment Tool (WCA) was applied in Brazil, Mozambique and Guinea to assess the intermediate outcomes of a program to develop leadership for performance improvement. Data were collected from 305 individuals in 42 work groups, who completed a self-administered questionnaire.
West Africa’s Regional Approach to Strengthening Health Workforce Information. CapacityPlus, 2012 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
The West African Health Organization is implementing a regional approach to strengthening health workforce information systems, leveraging resources from CapacityPlus, other USAID-funded projects, donors, and global organizations. This technical brief provides an overview of this approach, highlights lessons learned, and provides recommendations for other regions and countries to adopt the approach.
What Countries Can Do Now: Twenty-Nine Actions to Scale-Up and Improve the Health Workforce Global Health Workforce Alliance and World Health Organization, 2009. (Action Field: Finance; Resource)
This paper provides country policy makers with a quick summary of the evidence-based actionable steps that they can take immediately to improve the effectiveness of their HRH financing policies.
WHO/WFME Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education World Federation for Medical Education, 2003. (Action Field: Education; Tool/Guideline)
This product was developed by the World Health Organization and World Federation for Medical Education (WHO/WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education guidelines for accreditation of basic institutions and programs. The guidelines serve as a tool to assist national authorities and agencies, which have responsibility for the quality of medical education—either to ensure adequate activity and transparency of existing accreditation systems or to assist in the establishment of new systems in countries and regions that to date have not used accreditation. The guidelines are a consensus product resulting from deliberations of the taskforce, which included broad international expertise.
Workforce Planning for the Health Sector. The Capacity Project, 2006. (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Resource)
A key component of the wider HRH strategic plan that most countries are beginning to develop is a workforce plan. Such a plan enables senior managers to scan and analyze human resources data routinely, determine relevant policy questions and institute policies to ensure that adequate staff with appropriate skills is available when and where it is needed. This technical brief outlines the rationale, essential steps in workforce planning and practical tips for implementing a workforce planning exercise on a regular basis.
Workgroup Climate Assessment Tool and Guide for Facilitators. Management Sciences for Health (MSH), 2003. (Action Field: Leadership; Tool/Guideline)
The Workgroup Climate Assessment Tool (WCA) is designed to measure climate in intact work groups at all levels of an organization. It also engages work group members in conversation so that they can find ways to improve their particular climate. The WCA Guide for Facilitators consists of the WCA tool; tabulation sheets and feedback reports; tabulation instructions; facilitators plan for conducting the WCA; a detailed review of work group climate; leading and managing practices for improving work group climate; handouts for discussion groups; and instructions for applying the WCA.
Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). WHO, 2010 (Action Field: Human Resource Management Systems; Tool/Guideline)
“The Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method is a human resource management tool. It provides health managers a systematic way to make staffing decisions in order to manage their valuable human resources well. The WISN method is based on a health worker’s workload, with activity (time) standards applied for each workload component. The method determines how many health workers of a particular type are required to cope with the workload of a given health facility and assesses the workload pressure of the health workers in that facility. This revised manual takes into account the now-decentralized nature of health management in many countries. It is thus intended for the wider range of managers working at the different levels in today’s health systems.” [from website]
Workplace Violence Policy. Penn Behavioral Health Corporate Services. Penn Behavioral Health Corporate Services, 2008. (Action Field: Policy; Resource)
Workplace violence is a serious issue that has been increasing over the past decade. This product makes suggestions for creating a workforce violence policy, outlines guidelines and procedures for addressing workplace violence and provides a sample corporate policy for violence in the workplace, a sample workplace violence policy statement and a sample corporate policy for an employee assistance program (EAP).